The Company operates on a global basis, with the majority of net revenues generated outside of the U.S. Accordingly, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates can affect results of operations. Therefore, to supplement financial results presented in accordance with GAAP, certain financial information is presented excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange translations to provide a framework for assessing how the underlying businesses performed excluding the impact of foreign currency exchange translations (“constant currency”). Constant currency information compares results between periods as if exchange rates had remained constant period-over-period, with the current period’s results calculated at the prior-year period’s rates. The Company calculates constant currency information by translating current and prior-period results for entities reporting in currencies other than U.S. dollars into U.S. dollars using constant foreign currency exchange rates. The constant currency calculations do not adjust for the impact of revaluing specific transactions denominated in a currency that is different to the functional currency of that entity when exchange rates fluctuate. The constant currency information presented may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
The Company discloses the following constant currency financial measures: combined company net revenues and adjusted operating income.
The Company presents period-over-period comparisons of net revenues on a combined company, combined company constant currency, and combined company constant currency excluding the impact of acquisitions other than the acquisition of the P&G Beauty Business ("combined company organic (LFL)") basis. The Company believes that combined company period-over-period and combined company constant currency period-over-period better enable management and investors to analyze and compare the Company's net revenues performance from period to period, as the total business and individual divisions are being managed on a combined company basis. In the periods described in this release, combined company period-over-period and combined company constant currency period-over-period give effect to the completion of the Merger for purposes of the three months ended September 30, 2017 as if it has been completed on July 1, 2015. Combined company growth and combined company constant currency growth do not include any adjustments related to potential profit improvements, potential cost savings or adjustments to fully conform to the accounting policies of Coty. For reconciliation of combined company period-over-period, combined company constant currency period-over-period, and combined company organic (LFL) period-over-period, see the table entitled “Reconciliation of Reported Net Revenues Income to Combined Company and Like-For-Like Net Revenues”. For a reconciliation of the Company's combined company period-over-period, combined company constant currency period-over-period and combined company organic (LFL) by segment and geographic region, see the tables entitled “Net Revenues and Adjusted Operating Income by Segment” and “Net Revenues by Geographic Regions."
The Company presents operating income, operating income margin, gross margin, effective tax rate, net income, net income margin, net revenues and EPS (diluted) on a non-GAAP basis and specifies that these measures are non-GAAP by using the term “adjusted”. The Company believes these non-GAAP financial measures better enable management and investors to analyze and compare operating performance from period to period. In calculating adjusted operating income, operating income margin, gross margin, effective tax rate, net income, net income margin and EPS (diluted), the Company excludes following items:
• Costs related to acquisition activities: The Company excludes acquisition-related costs and acquisition accounting impacts such as those related to transaction costs and costs associated with the revaluation of acquired inventory in connection with business combinations because these costs are unique to each transaction. The nature and amount of such costs vary significantly based on the size and timing of the acquisitions and the maturities of the businesses being acquired. Also, the size, complexity and/or volume of past acquisitions, which often drives the magnitude of such expenses, may not be indicative of the size, complexity and/or volume of any future acquisitions.
• Restructuring and other business realignment costs: The Company excludes costs associated with restructuring and business structure realignment programs to allow for comparable financial results to historical operations and forward-looking guidance. In addition, the nature and amount of such charges vary significantly based on the size and timing of the programs. By excluding the above referenced expenses from the non-GAAP financial measures, management is able to evaluate the Company’s ability to utilize existing assets and estimate their long-term value. Furthermore, management believes that the adjustment of these items supplement the GAAP information with a measure that can be used to assess the sustainability of the Company’s operating performance.
• Amortization expense: The Company excludes the impact of amortization of finite-lived intangible assets, as such non-cash amounts are inconsistent in amount and frequency and are significantly impacted by the timing and/or size of acquisitions. Management believes that the adjustment of these items supplement the GAAP information with a measure that can be used to assess the sustainability of the Company’s operating performance. Although the Company excludes amortization of intangible assets from the non-GAAP expenses, management believes that it is important for investors to understand that such intangible assets contribute to revenue generation. Amortization of intangible assets that relate to past acquisitions will recur in future periods until such intangible assets have been fully amortized. Any future acquisitions may result in the amortization of additional intangible assets.
• Interest and other (income) expense: The Company excludes foreign currency impacts associated with acquisition-related and debt financing related forward contracts as the nature and amount of such charges are not consistent and are significantly impacted by the timing and size of such transactions.
• Redeemable noncontrolling interest: This adjustment represents the after-tax impact of the non-GAAP adjustments included in Net income attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests based on the relevant non-controlling interest percentage.
• Tax: This adjustment represents the impact of the tax effect of the pretax items excluded from Adjusted net income. The tax impact of the non-GAAP adjustments are based on the tax rates related to the jurisdiction in which the adjusted items are received or incurred.
The Company has provided a quantitative reconciliation of the difference between the non-GAAP financial measures and the financial measures calculated and reported in accordance with GAAP. For a reconciliation of adjusted gross profit to gross profit, adjusted EPS (diluted) to EPS (diluted), and adjusted net revenues to net revenues, see the table entitled “Reconciliation of Reported to Adjusted Results for the Consolidated Statements of Operations.” For a reconciliation of adjusted operating income to operating income and adjusted operating income margin to operating income margin, see the tables entitled “Reconciliation of Reported Operating Income to Adjusted Operating Income” and "Reconciliation of Reported Operating Income to Adjusted Operating Income by Segment." For a reconciliation of adjusted effective tax rate and adjusted cash tax rate to effective tax rate, see the table entitled “Reconciliation of Reported Income Before Income Taxes and Effective Tax Rates to Adjusted Income Before Income Taxes, Effective Tax Rates and Cash Tax Rates.” For a reconciliation of adjusted net income and adjusted net income margin to net income, see the table entitled “Reconciliation of Reported Net Income to Adjusted Net Income.”
The Company also presents free cash flow. Free cash flow is defined as net cash provided by operating activities, less capital expenditures. Free cash flow excludes cash used for private company stock option exercises and cash used for acquisitions. Management believes that free cash flow is useful for investors because it provides them with an important perspective on the cash available for debt repayment and other strategic measures, after making necessary capital investments in property and equipment to support the Company's ongoing business operations, and provides them with the same measures that management uses as the basis for making resource allocation decisions. For a reconciliation of Free Cash Flow, see the table entitled “Reconciliation of Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities to Free Cash Flow.”
These non-GAAP measures should not be considered in isolation, or as a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP.